But two words of advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, in conclusion carries weight that is rhetorical. It will be the statement that is last reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand in the summary-conclusion that is basic need to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened degree of diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine so long as they cannot unbalance the paper and call awareness of themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a feeling of proportion and timing. Create your points quickly and end crisply.
One of the most effective approaches to conclude a paper would be to discuss the larger need for that which you have written, providing readers with yet another reason to regard your projects as a effort that is serious. When working with this plan, you move through the concern that is specific of paper to your broader concerns regarding the reader’s world. Often, you will have to choose among a variety of significances: A paper regarding the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel because it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of the impact on sexual mores, population, or perhaps the church. But don’t overwhelm your reader utilizing the importance of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused.
The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer when you look at the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn:
. . . Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years back have finally dominated U.S. corn production.
The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. From 1930 through 1979 the typical yields of corn into the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, and the value that is additional the farmer do my homework com is currently several billion dollars each year.
The prosperity of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a feed that is major crop in arid areas of the entire world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the greatest varieties. And many superior types of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, along with other vegetables are hybrids. Today almost all corn manufactured in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods associated with plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the whole world. 10
The first sentence for this conclusion is a summary, and from this your reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull’s approaches for the hybrid breeding of corn. The summary is followed closely by a discussion that is two-paragraph the significance of Shull’s research for feeding the entire world.
When you look at the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with overview of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) together with ways in which the topic into consideration should be further explored. That you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn’t already been conducted if you raise questions.
This conclusion that is next from a sociological report in the placement of elderly both women and men in assisted living facilities.
Thus, our study shows a correlation involving the keeping of elderly citizens in nursing facilities plus the significant decline of the motor and intellectual skills within the ten months following placement. What the investigation has not made clear is the extent to which this decline that is marked as a result of physical rather than emotional causes. Older people are referred to homes at that time inside their lives once they grow less able to take care of themselves – which implies that the drop-off in skills can be as a result of causes that are physical. Nevertheless the emotional stress to be placed in a house, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient’s view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate – or even itself be a primary cause of – the individual’s rapid loss of abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the partnership between depression and particular physical ailments as these impact the skills regarding the elderly in nursing facilities. There was doubt that is little information yielded by such studies can enable medical care professionals to deliver more efficient services.
Notice how this call for further study locates the writer in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions which have come out of her very own work. The author summarizes her findings (when you look at the sentence that is first of paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation.
The purpose of your paper may be to review an issue or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. In such a full case, it might be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to provide an answer based on the knowledge you have gained while conducting research. In case your option would be to be studied seriously, your understanding must certanly be amply demonstrated in the human body of the paper.
. . . The problem that is major college sports today just isn’t commercialism – it is the exploitation of athletes plus the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.
Many universities are currently deriving substantial advantages from sports programs that rely on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America’s population. This is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a return that is fair their labor in both terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports.
Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports ought to be designed to extend until graduation, instead of covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and may include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper care that is medical. At institutions where in actuality the profits are particularly large (such as for instance Texas A &M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The biggest thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to achieve skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This might well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers.
Such a proposal, I suspect, will never be very easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to employ their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis associated with universities in the backs of America’s poor and minorities is not, over time, a tenable solution. The college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his – and hers – a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work with the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor. 11
In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one single sentence: “The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism – it is the exploitation of athletes together with proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.” In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis associated with problem just stated and follows with a recommendation that is general that “educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens” be accountable for the welfare of college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, as well as in the last paragraph, he anticipates resistance to your proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and going back to the overall point, that college athletes should receive a deal that is fair.
An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the true point of which in a conclusion is always to shed light on your own subject. The anecdote is much more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you only relate to a tale (“a lot of people today live in Plato’s cave . . .”); with the anecdote, you really retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to see on their own the importance of a reference to some other source – an effort most readers enjoy simply because they get to work out their creativity.